oklgrlr gYflK

oklgrlr gYflxKk DesZ GB o…kYsU Kglir DesZ gx ggprxkk Rd Drgxdk x„rRd sQl GxK L†rsU oklgr…lr gYflxKk AsgKl sZKwsZ sporxg yZsk Kkrk BˆQr arKxlI, grRrxk PslZ gŸrDRrxkk otirgZrk Rd Arirxbk BˆQrsUxK ogxqx grgrs„Z KkxZ ersksd

oklgr…lr KtxgrW gr gYflxK gr…lr UrBe Kkr osZB orRr hrgxZ GKUu sgx„k ixd pxˆQ Zr! pxZB erxk sdxRB ektqr Kxk bLud PUeU gr…lr UrBe smLxZ irU oi„ lrMxg GKN‹Ur ir grs‚x„ glsQ dr - GKgrk prZ lrsMx„B bLud dr

gYsghrM

grlr I Adrd hrkZt hrnrk gYirlrxZ BxkRt gr BIxkret gYirlrk Zuldr gY oLr AxdK gmt KtxgrW gr gYflxK jZMusl grZri kxxQ Zrk Px Xk gmt jurqkMusl grb sbxlI og gxYk Rd GKsU Kxk grZri oKulrd Kkr Aog px ex ZrB grc pxB GKrscK grZri sUxe sKQu gxYk Ribrd Kkr xrRd p G sbKUr sgxgPdr Kxk Arikr grlr gYirlrxK buB hrxM hrM KkxZ ersk:

  • GK grZri gYois - GB gYMusl gYflxKk GKsU sdsb grZri sUexl okrosk erIr jr
  • GKrscK grZri gYois - GB gYMusl exZ pxl GKrscK grZri sUexZ p oklgrlr gYflxK GB gYMusl UrBe KkxZ rkx Arikr BsR-Kt [ juMe KxUrl-AU (Gxerkrk) gr KxUrl-sU (dUxe) ] Gg AZ:ek Arxkr busU grZri ggprk Kkg jurqk UrBe KkxZ Kiexq busU gxYk osld Kkr p - jid: M+c = ouZkr UrBe KkxZ pxl BsR-Kt, M, c sUeud sKu jurqk QrrI Gid AxdK gY kxxQ jrxbk Rd okrosk KrdI grZri gkr Kkr og psd gr sdxik jzsKZr gRr krLxZ GKsU sgxmn grZrxi jrxbk rd erIr DsP [ jid R, I j GKB grZrxi arKr bkKrk ], oB og qxI GKrscK grZrxik orprj dIr Qrr MZk drB GB sZt dtk gYMusl jurqk dr pxlI UrBe Kkrk ousgcrxc jurqxkk ArBd ixd Plxl GKB sdxi GKrscK grZrxik og gYMusl og pxZ erxk Zxg jxpZu Gxqx GKsUB ir gY ZrB Ark GKsU KresdK gY (sgbusP) ggprk Kkg, jar: = BsR-Kt + . + R jsbI KrdI KrdI qx BsR-Kt I Aek GKsU grZri sUexlB pxZr, Zgu sdxik sgmRdtd xrxMk rxaB ogxqx BsR-Kt I Aek busU grZrxik ggprk Pl krLr pxxQ - jrxZ wsZmsk Iek sdhk KkxZ dr p
Dexkr ArxlrPdrk eskxsqxZ Arikr gYoisxK sZdhrxM hrM KxksQ:
  • sdhk gY - GB gYoivp gYflxKB okrosk gZird sdsb grZri sUexlB GB gYslk og p
  • sgbusdhk gY - GB gYslxZ kxxQ ksP, flrsP I KxKsU izslK gY GB gYoivp UrBe KkxZ rkx BsR-Kt [ juMe KxUrl-AU Gxerkrk gr KxUrl-sU dUxe ] I sgbu (bmsiK sP) ggprk KkxZ p
  • jurqk - jurqkslI rkx BsR-Kt op busU gxYk oix MsVZ p
gYflK, k- I flrsP Gg jurqxkk divdrsPMusl GKgrk ektqr Kxk bLud Zrpxl Krd gYsU Krd grZrxi Agrd KkxQ o oexK Aredrk LrsdKUr crkYr pxg cšsYk ox orio kxL gYMuxlrxK B…xkRt Aqxkk Adue grZriMuxlrk ox o…ju Kkr px„xQ - jrxZ opxRB Aqxkk Agrd sdY„ KkxZ erxkd Zxg ogxqx GB sdi ixd Plr og d, ZrB sKQu sKQu gsZi kxB MxQ jid sgkrisP brs Bsd brsxxQd '\'-k Ecxk

BsR-Kt sK?

Dexk jurqk I sgbusdhk gY UrBe KkxZ BsR-Kt ggprxkk Kar glr pxxQ BsR-Kt KrdI ivdxjrM gYsgxmn d GKsU sddrxbm ir Gxerkrk I oiZvl grDRrxk Kx‹UŸrl I A•U grZri busU GKox sUexlB BsR-Kt sUer prl dUxxe Gk oiZvl grZribusU prl Kx‹UŸrl Ark sU Gk GKir ( ixd krLxgd: `' = BsR-Kt + Z + k ) Dxm ( = BsR-Kt + b + b ) prl gYflKxK GKsU oxKZ erVrxdr GB ixi j Gkek j gYbusU AroxQ Zrkr ewaK ewaK gY d - Zrxbk sislZ esUxKB KrxR lrMrxZ BsR-Ktk hvsiKr GLrxd jd AxdKUr NUxKk NUKrsl

sdhk gY

GB gYoivp gYflxKB okrosk gZird sdsb grZri sUexlB GB gYslk og p oklgrlr csYshsK gYflK csYk ox orio kxL gYMuxlrxK BxkRt gYirlrk Adue csYMZ Aqxkk grZrxi oju Kkr pxxQ `K' AqksU Krar„ pI„r DsP glud pr, sVKB cxkxQd - K ArxQ BxkRt `K' grZrisUxZ `L' kx„xQ K'k Dcxk Zisd `M' gxoxQ `sR' grZrxi - `N' ZrkB Iek Zlr„ P so'xZ - Q brZlr„ Gg R gxoxQd R'k Aroxd, S Zrk irar„ guSxld Ggrk sKhrxg AqkMuslk Agrd sVK Kkr px„xQ BsRgrlr KtxgrxW?

Zxg gsZi j dB Zr glg dr Arirxbk imrB Aqxkk Q‚rQs‚ - Adexq B…xkRkr gW_W siZg„t - ZrB grZrxik o…LrxZ Kulr„ dr - GB jr Aousgxc GKsU gsZi b glud B…xkRMuxlr b glxZ Rrxd dr - Zr†xbk ZrB b'x„k grZriI drB - ouZkr… Arikr b'imrBxK goxZ sblri sKDxZ Arirxbk Argrk sKDk iZ sKDsk„o_ gY drB Rr„MrRsik GB ArKrxl sKDk shxUxZB mxn b goxld p†rUu Mx‚ Krd Urdxl irar Arxo, ZrB c Mxld b'x„k irar„ Px‚ b'x„k iZ ArxkK gruprkr pl m Arirxbk sZdsU mx„k Kiexq Q'Lrdr iuLˆQsg - Ki KxkI Q'Ur Aroxdk bkKrk ZrB m Ark – Arod erZxlr WsgDxZ Gisd Kxk Z,a Ark ‡ P‚xl B…xkRt gYirlrk mn AqksUxZ Y DVxld f'x„k irar„ F P‚xld sU•Wrk oiejrx„

sgbusdhk gY - sgxmn Aqk, ksP I flrsP

jurqk UrBe Kkgrk esZxZ GB gYMusl UrBe KkxZ p Zxg Gxqx BsR-Ktk exkk gYsU ogoiB sgbu (bmsiK) GBgYMuslk Rd sUeud BsR-Kt + . + cšsYMZ gYsU DbrpkY g-flr BsR-Kt + . + g euUuslsU prl fule gr bmsiK sP (dtxP„ b„r flr-sP gYsPx DbrpkYMusl bxL sdd) GB gYMusl crdZ: Exkk kgY, ksP, flrsP Ark Kx„KsU sgxmn gYois - jrxbk Rd sdR rd o…Kulrd Kkr jr„sd busU bwrx‹Zk AgZrkYr KksQ Arikr Px„sQ GKB gxYk sgsgc exK GKsU grZrxiB otirg krLxZ B…xkRt gY `ArB'-K Arikr gr…lr s, B, t, C - GB PrksU Aqxkk Rd ggprk KxksQ Ac:k ArB = s, Ark D:k ArB = B GKBhrxg BsR-Kt + . + Ac:k ArB = t Gg… BsR-Kt + . + D:k ArB = C GKB hrxg B…xkRt BD-K ggprk Kkr px„xQ   u , D, v , E GB PrksU Aqxkk Rd B…xkRt B GxoxQ x , G, y , H -Gk sZsdsc px„ Ark I, O, z, J DxVxQ B…xkRt gY `I' grZrxi

Kx„KsU Aqxkk jusMZ Krkd bLrxdr prl Iexk IB GKB Krkxd flr-sPMuslxKI oiejrx„ Ardr px„xQ GxZ GKsU ousgcr sd–P„B ArxQ kYmsxZ Arirk iZ jr†kr Axer - Z†rxbk ixd krLrk o…LrsU GKUu Kixlr ygsK! Aredrxbk Kar glsQ dr - Ggrerxk sPkKrlB Arirk jbuirKr Agr jbugrgukr qir Kkxgd (Armr Ksk)

jurqk

gr…lr I Adrd hrkZt„ hrnr„ jurqxkk breU GLxdr glhrxg gprl ArxQ o…ob grdrd okltKkY KkxlI RdorcrkY jurqxkk ggprxk Ah axKB jrxˆQ BsR gYflxK jarog Gk Pld krLrk ZrB x„rRd grc px„xQ Zxg Aredrk sdxRk sPiZ jurqxkk ggprk Gs‚x„ PlxZ PrBxl ZrI og

jr glsQlri, jurqk yZsk KkxZ ai BsR-Kt GKox sUxe Qx‚ sbd Zrkek j gYbusU sdx„ jurqk Kkr pxg, osl ewaKhrxg sUeud go! GKUr DbrpkY sbsˆQ jid cd, `' GB jurqxkk gYbusU prl ai `e' Gg… Zrkek `k' (guZ: k-flr sKu ousgcrk Rd Arikr ksUxKB ggprk KxksQ) fxl UrBe KkxZ sUeud: BsR-Kt e k - ZrpxlB frorb sixU Ml `' UrBe KkxZ BsR-Kt + d + c Ggrk sd–P„B guSxZ erkxQd BsR-Kt sK Rd bkKrk prl

sgxmn sYcrdxjrM

kgY I ksPxK [ hrKrslK orBd - jid Ar-Krk, p-BKrk BZrsbxK ] jarxi GKB gxYk busU Z e spxoxg MwptZ px„xQ ksPxK Ac:k [ lr„rk Ko ] Gg kgYxK Eck grZrxi sZsZ Kkrk eQxd GB jus xjrR px„xQ ZrB `r' Gg `A' GKB grZrxik dtPu I DPu ejrx„ GKB Krkxd s-B, t-C, u-D, ... BZrsbxK grZrxik dtxP-Iexk erI„r jrxg gsZi I-Krk - .r - Krkd IKrksU pl Gg r-Gk jza sgKrm Zrk Rd Z grZrxik x„rRd bsLdr DxLxjrM, csYMZ orbwxmk Rd s, B, t I C -K GKsUir grZrxiB [ BxkRt ArB ] krLr px„xQ Zxg btN - t-Krk I btN-C exZ pxl jarxi BsR-Kt + . + s Gg BsR-Kt + . + Dck s grZri sUexZ pxg GB jus AduokY Kkxl , G, y I H-K [ BxkRt B ] Gg I [Ac:k, jxpZu .r gr IKrk drB ], z Gg J-KI GKB grZrxi [ BxkRt I ] erI„r jrxg w-Krk [ gr flr ] I F ZrB [ BxkRt sUWr ] GKB grZrxi

GB pl okl grlr gYflxKk osq sggkY Ggrk gYflxKk irYsP I jurqk I sgbu osm gYslk QK oexK GKUu esksPZ px sdd ZrpxlB jxa