PRECISION BENGALI FOR E-MAIL
(Please print this out for future reference)
Send your comments to :
J. Mukherjee E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Transliteration way : aami bhaalo aachhi
Our way : a|/m v|l a|/C
Our objective :
ONE English letter per ONE Bengali letter ;
ONE typing symbol per ONE Bengali symbol .
Dear Bengali friend!
Do you know that there is a fantastically easy, natural and exact way of
writing Bengali, which is also an exciting way to communicate with your
Bengali friends and relatives whenever you use e-mail. How do you like to
find a method which enables you to spell each word of the Bengali language
with the same degree of accuracy as when you write it in Bengali itself,
but while using in reality the letters and symbols found on the keyboard of
your computer ? ( Please bear in mind that not all computers are equipped
to send and receive e-mails in real Bengali fonts.)
Nobody would deny the fact that because no such exact method of writing
existed up until very recently most Bengalees preferred to use English in
their regular e-mail communications or otherwise opted for an inferior way
of writing Bengali, namely, 'transliteration',-- which, as a matter of fact,
is a phonetic translation of each word and not a symbolic representation, as
is the case with our present system. I am confident that once you have
started using our system , you will NEVER go back to writing Bengali through
that 'old-fashioned' transliteration way, like: aami bhaalo aachhi, which
is, in fact, an inexact and arbitrary way of writing Bengali, because
somebody else could have written the same thing as: amee valo aachy and a
third in another way, besides being encumbered with the added disadvantage
of using too many letters per word.
I will provide you with several examples and you will know WITHIN MINUTES,
how to write Bengali through this unique method using the letters and
symbols available on your computer's keyboard. Why is it so easy? Because
you will be writing in EXACTLY the same way as you would normally do when
you write Bengali with its OWN letters and symbols !
Let me now reveal to you the REAL secret : The ultimate effectiveness of
this method arises from the fact that EACH BENGALI LETTER AND
EACH BENGALI SYMBOL IS SUBSTITUTED RESPECTIVELY
BY A SINGLE APPROPRIATE LETTER(in some cases a suffix is
attached to the letter ) AND BY A SINGLE TYPING SYMBOL , ALL FOUND
ON THE KEYBOARD OF YOUR COMPUTER.
Test and see just how easy it is to use this method as you study the
following examples : The Bengali word 'aami' meaning 'I' is written as:
a|/m . ( This / is the Bengali vowel-symbol short-i, whereas the
symbol | represents an 'aa-kar', like in the word 'aami' ). The word
'bhaalo' (well) is written as v|l , and 'aachhi' as a|/C , where C stands
for the Bengali consonant-letter 'chh' , as opposed to the small c, which
represents the Bengali consonant-letter 'ch' . . So, 'aami bhaalo aachhi'
can now be written as:
a|/m v|l a|/C , exactly as you would write in real Bengali.
See how neat and natural it is ! (It is almost self-explanatory to anyone
knowing Bengali). Thanks to the efficacy of this system , there is NO longer
any need to write those l-o-n-g cumbersome, awkward spellings, like:
aami bhaalo aachhi. The simpleness and straight-forwardness of this
method as compared to 'transliteration' can be readily shown by
an example: Whereas the Bengali word for 'uneven' is written in the
transliteration way as : asamotal , it is written in our present system
as : asmtl , just as you would write with actual Bengali characters.
Here are the full sets of Bengali vowels and consonants as are being used
in this method: (print these out so as to keep a permanent record)
TABLE OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS AS USED IN THIS METHOD
VOWELS ARE WRITTEN AS ( in their order ): a a| i I u U
R e e' o o' % : ~ t.
Corresponding VOWEL SYMBOLS:(in their order): | / \ , ;
< ( [ ( | ( ]
NOTES ON PUNCTUATION MARKS AND SPECIAL SYMBOLS :
1. The symbol | besides being used as the Bengali vowel-symbol aa-kaar ,
is also used as 'daanrrhi' (meaning 'full stop'), which is placed at the
end of a complete sentence, preferably after a double-space distance.
2. A small dash (-) represents a comma and two small dashes side by side
(--) represent a semicolon . The quotation marks are the same
as those used in English. The question mark is ?.
3(a). SOME of the symbols that are placed on top or bottom of a letter in
real Bengali writing, like 'chandobindu' (~) ; u - kaar (,) ; U - kaar (;) ;
ree - kaar(<) are placed, as per this system, AFTER the applicable
letter : EXAMPLES: saantaar (n is nasal) (swimming) = s~|t|r and NOT s|~t|r
; sudoor(far-off) = s,d;r ; bhritta (servant)= v<t} ; drirrha (firm) = d<D:
3(b) There are OTHER symbols of the above type which are to be placed
BEFORE the applicable letter [symbols like 'ra-fola' ( _ ) and 'ref'(^) ]
EXAMPLES : promaan (proof) = _pm|N ; prokreeti(nature)= _pk</t ;
tarko (debate) = t^k ; but samporkita (related to) is written as sm.p^/kt
, because the sound of 'ref' ^ comes before / (that is, before i-kaar).
NOTE: See detailed treatment of each of the various symbols used
by this system in a separate section of this E-mail.
CONSONANTS are: (in the order of their occurence): k K g G & ;
c C j J n' ; T T' D D' N ; t t' d d' n ; p f b v m ;
z r l x S ; s h y D: D': ja-fola: } (positioned
as in Bengali) ; ra-fola _ (used before a letter) ; ref sign ^ (used before a letter).
GENERAL NOTES :
1. A dot (.) after a letter indicates the Bengali symbol
'hasonto', rendering a 'stress' sound to that letter and a dot placed
between two letters indicates, in most cases, a compound letter,
being composed of those letters.
COMPOUND LETTERS ARE DISCUSSED BELOW.
2. Usually, there is hardly ever any conflict between the 'bisarga'
sign(:) and the colon suffix used in conjunction with each Bengali letters
D: and D':
3.(a) Remember : The letter x in our system actually represents the first of
the 3 Bengali s's (in their order) and should, therefore, be pronounced as
such and NOT like the English letter x. EXAMPLE: xx| (shasha) meaning:
3.(b) The letter y in our system is to be pronounced like the y in the
Bengali word 'aamaey' (to me) or jaaey (to go) which are written respectively as:
a|m|y and z|y ; consequently it should NOT be pronounced like the English
REMEMBER these important facts :
FACT #1. REGARDING PRONOUNCIATION:
EACH of the vowels, consonants and symbols shown on the table above
MUST be pronounced in EXACTLY the same way as you would pronounce
the corresponding Bengali letter or symbol, which it is supposed to be
FACT #2. REGARDING THE PROPERTIES OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS :
BE ASSURED of the fact that EACH of the vowels, consonants and symbols
appearing on the table above is A TRUE REPRESENTATION of the corresponding
Bengali counterpart in EVERY respect ( excepting its appearance, of
course ) IN SO FAR AS ITS USE IN THE BENGALI LANGUAGE IS CONCERNED
and, therefore, each of them functionally serves the SAME specific PURPOSE
as its Bengali counterpart does in relation to ACTUAL Bengali words.
A MUST FOR THIS METHOD IS: You must KNOW the CORRECT spelling
of each Bengali word you will be using so as not to confuse other Bengali
readers of your e-mails. Consult a Bengali dictionary, whenever you feel
unsure about the spelling of a word.
Let's now try out the knowledge you have acquaired thus far. Can you read
the following lines from Tagore's poems ? (Always provide a double-space
between the words when you write in the following way, so as NOT to look
The answer is written below :
1. gg(n gr(j (mG - Gn brS| | k,(l ek| b(s
a|/C - n|/h vrs| |
2. (z f,l n| f,/T(t J/rl d'rN\(t -
(z nd\ mr,p(t' h|r|l d'|r| |
j|/n(g| j|/n t|o hy/n h|r| |
3. ekK|/n (C|T (Kt a|/m e(kl| - c|/r/d(k b~|k| jl
k/r(C (Kl| |
I hope you had no difficulty in reading those poems. If you had any,
it would be necessary for you to be well acquainted with each letter
and symbol appearing on the table above and to understand its role
in relation to Bengali words. Moreover, if you pay close attention to
the various examples presented on these pages, you will have no difficulty
in knowing how to become adroit in this new way of writing ;
type-writing -- that is .
Just REMEMBER this very important fact ALWAYS :
The manner of writing Bengali through this system is ALMOST THE SAME
as that employed while writing Bengali using the ACTUAL letters and
symbols of the Bengali language.
Here is what the above poems read : 1. gagone garoje megh, ghono barosha .
kule eka bose aachhi, nahi varosa . 2. je phul na phutite jhorilo
dharonite, je nodee morupathe haaraalo dhaaraa, jaanigo jaani taao hoyni
haaraa. 3. ekkhaani chhoto khet aami ekela, chaaridike bankaa jal korichhe
SIMILAR SOUNDING LETTERS :
As we all know, there are GROUPS of Bengali letters where all the
letters belonging to a particular group have similar sounds or
pronounciations (like: ch, chh or t,th etc.). Whereas there is no clear way
to distinguish between the sounds of such letters when written in the
transliteration mode, the present method embodies no such difficulty because
the letters and symbols as used by this system are the TRUE representations
of the actual Bengali letters and symbols themselves (including their
sounds) and therefore adopts, in each separate instance, the same
pronounciation as that used in the Bengali language itself.
Let's now clarify the use of such similar-sounding letters :
VOWEL GROUPS WITH SIMILAR SOUNDS :
( An equal sign '=' means "is written as " )
Let's start with : i I ; EXAMPLES : itihaas (history) = i/th|s ;
ingrejee(English) = i%(rj\ ; eegal(eagle) = Igl ; eeshwar (God) = Ix.br
; Note: x.b is a compound letter, which has been dealt with in detail
near about the lower section of this e-mail.
REMEMBER : the letter y , as is being used in this system, is NOT a
vowel, and does NOT have any similarity of sound to the vowels i or I .
It SHOULD be pronounced rather like the letter y in the following Bengali
words: tomaaey (to you ) = (t|m|y or bishoy (subject) = /bSy or joy
(victory) = jy
Next are u and U :
EXAMPLES: uddam (enthusiasm/endeavour) = ud}m ; oosha (dawn) = US| .
Next R : ( Bengali letter : 'ree') EXAMPLES: rishi ( a sage) = R/S ;
ritu (season) = Rt, .
Remember, the small letter r is a consonant . EXAMPLES : robibaar
(sunday) = r/bb|r ; raakhaal(cowherd) = r|K|l ;
Next e and e' : (Bengali letters: eh and oi ) EXAMPLES: ekhaane(here) =
eK|(n ; elopaataarrhi(haphazard) = e(l|p|t|/D: ; oikko (unity) = e'k} ;
oikaantik(earnestness/sincerity) = e'k|n./tk (Please note that n.t is a
compound letter,which is discussed below) ; write, oitijja ( cultural
heritage) as e'/tz} rather than e'/th} ; since we are not using actual
Bengali letters your readers might have difficulty in knowing what
word e'/th} is.
Next o and o' : (Bengali letters: o and ou) EXAMPLES: okaaloti
(legal profession) = ok|l/t ; otoprotovaabe(inseparably) = ot(_p|tv|(b ;
ousadh (medicine) = o'Sd' ; oudaarjo ( generosity) = o'd|^z ;
ouponyasik(novelist) = o'pn}|/sk .
GROUPS OF CONSONANTS WITH SIMILAR SOUNDS :
First, k K k.K g G :
EXAMPLES : kokil (the cuckoo) = (k|/kl ;
koutoohal(inquisitiveness) = (k]t;hl ; khokaa (lad/boy) = (K|k| ;
khaaddo (food) = K|d} ; Khabor ; (news) = Kbr (just as you would write in
Bengali). k.K is the Bengali compound letter used in such words as :
poreekkha (examination) = pr\k.K| ; saakkhya (witness) = s|k.K} and
saakkhi = s|k.K\ . (Compound letters are discussed in detail
at the end of this e-mail.) ; golakriti(round) = (g|l|k</t ;
gataanugotik (routine/usual) = gt|n,g/tk ;
ghar (house/dwelling) = Gr ; ghorrhi(watch) = G/D: .
Next are & % and n' :
EXAMPLES: bang(frog) = b}|& ; song (clown) = s&
songbad (news) = s%b|d ; songsaar ( family/earthly life) = s%s|r ;
jhanjhaat(trouble) = Jn'.J|T; ( n'.J is a compound letter, which is
discussed below) ; meeyaa (appellation for a muslim man = /mn'| .
Next are: c C j z J :
EXAMPLES : chaal(rice) = c|l ; choitra (last Bengali
month) = [c_t ; paachcho (digestible) = p|c} ; chhobi (picture)= C/b ;
chhatro ( student) = C|_t ; jal (water) = jl ; jyotirmoy (luminous) =
(j}|/t^my ; jemon (as like ) = (zmn ; jogajog (contact/connection ) =
(z|g|(z|g ; aangga (an order)(n is nasal) = a|j.n'| or, if you prefer,
a|g.n'| ; projojjyo (applicable) = _p(z|j} ; jehetu (because) = (z(ht, ;
jaanbaahon ( traffic) = z|nb|hn ; jharrh (storm) = JD: ;
nirjharinee (river/stream) = /n^J/rN\ (Please watch your Bengali spelling
and ensure its correctness) ; jholagurrh mollasses) = (J|l|g,D: .
Next are T T' D D' :
EXAMPLES : taakaa(money) = T|k| ; taatkaa (fresh) = T|Tk|
chitthi(letter) = /c/T' ; tthelagaarhi(handbarrow) = (T'l|g|/D: ;
tthont(n has nasal sound) (lip) = (T'~|T ; daaktikit (postal stamp) =
D|k/T/kT ; dumur (fig) = D,m,r ; ddhaak (drum) = D'|k ; ddheu (wave) =
(D'u ; ddhol (small drum) = (D'|l ; ddherrhas ( lady's finger ) =
Next are t t. t' d d'
EXAMPLES: tomader (your) = (t|m|(dr ; taajaa (fresh) = t|j| ;
taatparjo (significance) = t|t.p^z ;
Use of t. (which is a t with a dot beside it . It is the Bengali 'khanda
A dot represents the Bengali 'hasanto' symbol) : hatthat (sudden) = hT'|t.
biddoot (electricity) = /bd,}t. ; bhobishat future) = v/bS}t. DO NOT
omit the dot (.) after the t, because the whole represents the Bengali
letter 'khanda-ta' .
thiyeter (theatre) = /t'(yT|r ; teerthajaatree (pilgrim) = t\^t'z|_t\ ;
drirrha (firm/strong) = d<D': ; doordorshee (farsighted) = d;rd^x\ ;
(Remember, a semicolon( ;) represents the Bengali vowel-symbol
long-U ) ; bideerna (pierced) = /bd\^N ; dharmokaarzo (religious
practices) = d'^mk|^z ; dhaaronaa (conception) = d'|rN| ;
dhoni (sound) = d'.b/n . d'.b is a compound letter, which is discussed
below. dhoeerja (patience) = [d'^z .
Now n and N :
EXAMPLES : notun (new) = nt,n ; poorno (full) = p;^N ;
niroopan (ascertainment) = /nr;pN ; aanondo (happiness) = a|nn.d
n.d is a compound letter, which is discussed below ) .
Next are the 3 Bengali s's : x S and s :
EXAMPLES : bishesh (special, particular) = /b(xS ;.
greesshokaal (summer) = _g\S.mk|l .
sushaasita (well-governed) = s,x|/st ; sushree (beautiful) = s,_x\ ;
somoy (time) = smy ; bhaashaa (language) = v|S| ;
eershaa (envy) = I^S| ; aasheesh (blessing) = a|x\S
; aasheerbaad (blessing) = a|x\^b|d ; sheshokto (mentioned
last of all ) = (x(S|k.t ; k.t is a compound letter, whose usage
is explained below . greesshokaal (summer) = _g\S.mk|l .
now D: and D':
EXAMPLES : baarrhi(house) = b|/D: ; taratarrhi(quickly) =
t|D:|t|/D: aashaarrhr (a Bengali month) = a|S|D': daanrrh (n is
nasal)(oar) = d~|D: ; but do NOT write this as d|~D: because the
'chandobindu' symbol ~ refers directly to the preceding letter d and not
to the symbol | . ddherrhas (lady's finger) = (D'D:s ;
From all the above examples you can readily see how closely this system
adheres to the 'Bengali Way' of writing. Without a doubt, for this reason
alone, Bengalees will find this mode of writing quite suited to their own
USE OF SYMBOLS CLARIFIED :
Let us once again clarify the uses of some of the symbols (and a few odd
letters) whose examples have already been furnished above,
namely : ~ % & n' , ; . : R < _ ^ [ / \
| ( ] }
NOTES ON LOWER AND UPPER-PLACED SYMBOLS :
1(a). SOME of the symbols that are placed on top or bottom of a letter in
REAL Bengali writing, like 'chandobindu' (~) , u - kaar (,) , U - kar (;)
ree-kaar (<) SHOULD be placed, as per this system, AFTER the applicable
letter. EXAMPLES : sudoor (far-off) = s,d;r ; santaar (n is nasal)
( swimming)= s~|t|r and NOT s|~t|r ; aakreeti ( shape) = a|k</t ;
greeho (house) = g<h .
1(b). However, there are OTHER symbols of the above type which are placed
BEFORE the applicable letter ; EXAMPLES : promaan ( proof) = _pm|N ;
tarko( debate) = t^k ; however, 'samporkita' (related to) is
written as sm.p^/kt , because the sound of 'ref' ^ comes before
the sound of 'i -kaar' / ; Note: m.p is a compound letter , which is
SYMBOLS AND SOME SPECIFIC LETTER-USES CLARIFIED BY EXAMPLES :
Use of ~ (symbol of 'chandobindu' , placed directly AFTER a letter. )
EXAMPLE : chaand(moon)( n is nasal) = c~|d ;
gonf (n is nasal) (moustache) =(g~|f ;But do NOT write : c|~d or (g|~f ,
because ~ relates directly to the preceding letter and not to the symbol |
. khaankhaan (n's are nasal) (expressing loneliness) = K~|K~| ;
saantaar ( n is nasal) (swimming) = s~|t|r ; faanpaa (hollow)
(n is nasal) = f~|p| .
Use of % (that is, the letter representing 'anusshar'. This symbol (%)
is chosen due to its similarity of look with the Bengali 'anusshar'). This
letter can also be used as a pecentage sign (like 10%). No conflict can
arise as a result of this because the percentage sign, in mathematical sense, is used
ONLY after a number . The Bengali word for this is : shatkara or
shataangsho, which are written as : xtkr| and xt|%x .
EXAMPLES of % : bongshodhar (descendant) = b%xd'r ; songkha ( number ) =
s%K}| ; songbad (news) = s%b|d ; meemaangsaa (solution of a problem) =
Use of & ( Bengali letter representing 'ooang' , where n is nasal and,
therefore, should NOT be read or thought of as 'and' or as
'ebong'. This paticular letter is chosen because
of its similarity of look with the afore-mentioned Bengali letter ).
EXAMPLES : bang (frog) = b}|& ; rongchonge ( of variegated
colours) = r&c(& ; song (clown) = s& .
Use of n' (this is the 5th Bengali letter starting with ch,chh etc )
EXAMPLES : meeyaa ( appellation for a muslim man) = /mn'| ; jhanjhaat
(trouble) = Jn'.J|T ; n'.J is a compound letter, which is discussed
Use of , (a comma represents in our system the Bengali vowel-symbol
short u) : EXAMPLES : pukur (pond) = p,k,r ; mukut (crown) = m,k,T ;
jhurrhi (basket) = J,/D: .
Use of ; (a semicolon represents in our system the Bengali vowel-symbol
long-U ) : EXAMPLES : doorobortee (distant) = d;rb^t\ ; bhoogolbiddya
(geography) = v;(g|l/bd}| ; soorjo (the sun) = s;^z ; sudoor (far-off)
= s,d;r .
Use of . (a dot represents the Bengali sound-stress symbol 'hasanto' and
is applied in relation to the preceding letter and should NOT be thought
of or used as a full-stop, at least not in our system of writing.) A t
with a dot(.) right beside it, like t. represents the Bengali letter
EXAMPLES : hatthaat (suddenly) = hT'|t. Do NOT forget to place a dot
after the 't' in the previous example because it (i.e., the dot) imparts a
'hasanto' sound to that t ..Other examples : khuski (dandruff ) = K,x./k
; A dot is placed on the right of x to impart the 'hasanto'(stress) sound
to it . Remember, the 'x ' we are talking about here is really the first
of the 3 Bengali s's ) . baakpotu (cleverness of speech) = b|k.pT,
( a dot is placed beside the k so as to signify that you must
pronounce the accentuated sound of k as is done for a hasanto-symbol).
In addition to signifying a 'hasanto' symbol and its accompaying sound
a dot also indicates that the letters on either side of it may have
formed a compound letter.
EXAMPLES : saakkhaat (meeting/visible) = s|k.K|t. ; chinta
(thought) = /cn.t| ; bisshoy (wonder/astonishment) = /bs.my . In the
previous examples k.K n.t and s.m are COMPOUND LETTERS,
which are discussed below .
Use of : (Bengali symbol 'bisargo') .
EXAMPLES : itastatoh (hesitation) = its.tt: ; praatohkaal (morning) =
Use of R : ( Bengali letter 'ree') :
EXAMPLES : reeshi (a sage) = R/S ; reetu (season) = Rt, reensodh
(paying off a debt) = RN(x|d'
Use of < : (ree-sound symbol) (Used AFTER the applicable letter) :
EXAMPLES : treeno (grass) = t<N ; prokreeti ( nature) = _pk</t ;
nibhreete (secretly) = /nv<(t ; kreepaa (kindness) = k<p| ;
upokreeto ( benefited) = upk<t .
Use of _ : (Bengali symbol ra-fola ; used BEFORE the applicable
letter). (Note : The decision to place the 'ra-fola' symbol
( _ ) before the applicable letter is solely for the purpose of
providing a look similar to that in Bengali ) .
EXAMPLES : promaan ( proof ) = _pm|N ; prosongsaa ;
praise ) = _px%s| ; druta quick ) = _d,t ; proshrobon (fountain)
= _p_sbN ; bibrato (embarrassed ) = /b_bt ; priyo (dear) = _/py
but NOT /_py . aakrosh ( anger) = a|(_k|x ; aakromon (attack) = a|_kmN
; samproti (recently) = sm._p/t ; grohon (receiving) = _ghN ;
praadurvaab (appearance ) = _p|d,^v|b ; kreerrha (play) = _k\D:| ;
krorrhpoti ( multimillionaire) = (_k|D:p/t but NOT _(K|D:p/t .
Use of ^ : ( the Bengali 'ref'-sign ; used BEFORE the applicable
EXAMPLES : tarko (debate) = t^k but NOT tk^ because the sound of ref ^
occurs BEFORE the applicable letter ; barnona (description ) = b^Nn| ;
nirmita(made) = /n^/mt but NOT /n/^mt because the sound of ref (^)
comes BEFORE the vowel sound, short i (/) ; nirmool (uprooted) = /n^m;l
; durboddha ( hard to understand) = d,^(b|d'} but NOT d,(^b|d'} for
the reason similar to that indicated in the preceding example. kaarjo
(work) = k|^z ; doorobortee (far-off) = d;rb^t\ ; songsargo (association)
= s%s^g ; dharmo (religion) = d'^m ; sparsho (touch) = s.p^x ; samporkito
(related to) = sm.p^/kt . In the previous example the position of ^ is justified
by the fact that the sound of ^ comes before the sound of i-kaar / .
Use of [ : (Bengali vowel sound : oi ) :
EXAMPLES : boishomma (dissimilarity ) = [bSm} ;
boisadrisso ( dissimilarity ) = [bs|d<x} ; soinik
(soldier) = [s/nk ; boichitro (diversity) = [b/c_t} ; doimaasik
(bimonthly) = [d.bm|/sk ; noipunna (skill) = [np,N} .
Use of / \ : ( short i and long I ) :
EXAMPLES : aami (meaning 'I' ) = a|/m ; sushree (good looking)
= s,_x\ ; bineeta ( modest) = /bn\t ; biporeet (opposite) = /bpr\t ..
Use of ( : [Bengali vowel sound : e , like in the english letter 'el'
EXAMPLES : tel (oil) = (tl ; pet (belly) = (pT ; aabeg ( emotion) =
a|(bg ; bibek (conscience ) = /b(bk ; beshi (much) = (bx\ ;
udbeg (anxiety ) = ud.(bg ; NOTE : In the above example,
the 'ey-kaar' symbol ( is applicable to b and NOT to d .
Note : d.b is a compound letter, which is discussed below.
Use of ( | : ( Bengali vowel sound : o )
EXAMPLES : tomaader (your) = (t|m|(dr ; bodhaateeto
( unintelligible) = (b|d'|t\t ; niyojito (engaged) = /n(y|/jt ;
monobal (strength of mind) = m(n|bl
Use of ( ] : (Bengali vowel sound : ou ) :
EXAMPLES : bou (wife) = (b] ; souhaardo ( friendship) = (s]h|^d ;
soubhaggo (good fortune) = (s]v|g} ; nouka (boat ) = (n]k| .
Use of } : ( Bengali j-fola) :
EXAMPLES : rajjo (kingdom) = r|j} ; baepaar (incident/affair) = b}|p|r
; graajjo (acceptable) = _g|h} but since we are not using the actual
Bengali alphabet, someone reading _g|h} may not know what he is reading .
So in order to avoid such confusion one may also write : _g|z} ;
boddha (intelligible) = (b|d'} ; aabosshokataa (necessity) = a|bx}kt| ;
saahaajjo (help) = s|h|z} ; songkha (number) = s%K}| ;
byasto (busy) = b}s.t (s.t is a compound letter,which is explained
below ) ; aakkhaen (narration)= a|K}|n ; uddaen ( garden) = ud.d}|n ;
naejjo (reasonable) = n}|z} .
HOW TO WRITE BENGALI COMPOUND LETTERS ( JUKTAAKKHOR)
When you pronounce a Bengali word having a compound letter in it, you will
notice that the upper or the left sub-letter (of the compound letter)
exhibits a 'stress' sound indicated in Bengali by a symbol known as
'hasanto', which is placed near the lower end of the said sub-letter.
Consider a typical example : The word 'shaanto'(peaceful) can be broken
down right at the point of contact between the two sub-letters, n and t ,
into two parts : shaa(n) + (t)o with the result that the upper sub-letter,
n, by virtue of the pronounciation of the word 'shaanto', displays a
'stress' sound, which can be indicated by placing a 'hasanto' symbol
at the lower end of n.
The above characteristic can be considered as the most GENERAL CASE with
almost any compound letter you will come across. As you know, in our
system of writing a 'hasanto' is represented by a dot (.) and therefore the
significance of the afore-noted (general) observation amounts to the fact
that a compound letter, like the one found in the word shaa(n)(t)o
(peaceful ) can be written as n.t , meaning thereby that n has a 'hasanto'
sound to it and moreover, together with t it forms the said compound
letter. Hence the word in question can now be written, following the rules of our
system as x|n.t . Please note that, on the other hand, the word
'shaanti(peace) is written as x|n./t and NOT as x|/n.t ,because the
i-kaar symbol / applies to t and NOT to n . If you know the above
general rule, you can write almost any compound letter .
Here are several examples of compound letter. Please study each word
ATTENTIVELY so that you can be sure as to how to write different types
of compound letter, henceforth referred to as CL .
An equal sign = means " is written as "
EXAMPLES : aanondo (happiness) = a|nn.d ; somosto (all) = sms.t ;
janmo (birth) = jn.m ; vakto (devoted) = vk.t
A GENERAL RULE : You CAN put a vowel or other symbol in between the
sub-letters of a compound letter whenever such is needed : EXAMPLE : udbeg
(anxiety ) = ud.(bg ; jawntro (machine) = zn._t ; aanondito ( happy) =
EXCEPTION TO THE ABOVE RULE : 'MERGING SUB-LETTERS' which are discussed
More EXAMPLES of CL :aanondaashru (tears of joy) = a|nn.d|_x, ; bisshoy
(wonder) = /bs.my ; bisshito (astonished ) = /b/s.mt ; however you write
'aakoshmik' (sudden) as a|ks./mk and NOT a|k/s.mk because the i-kaar
sound applies to m and NOT to s . okkhor (a letter of alphabet) = ak.Kr
but aapekkhik (relative) = a|(pk./Kk ; pokkhi (bird) = pk.K\ ;
aatteeyo ( a relative) = a|t.m\y , because the 'm' being silent, the long-i
sound does not affect the pronounciation of the word 'aatteeyo' even if it,
that is, the symbol ( \ ) stands beside the m . But bisteerno ( extensive) =
/bs.t\^N ; bishreeto (forgotten) = /bs.m<t ; (here too 'm' is silent
and therefore 'ree'-kaar (<) standing next to it does not affect the
pronounciation of the word 'bishreeto' ; dreestipaat ( glance ) = d<S./Tp|t
A word like biggan ( science) can be written as /bj.n'|n so as to be
in conformity with its Sanskrit root-spelling , but in order not to confuse
your readers, you may perhaps write it as /bg.n'|n . I would like to know
the opinion of my readers regarding this point. The word like 'bishwas',
meaning 'faith', is not quite of the same catagory and should be written
as per correct Bengali spelling : /bx.b|s , because, in this case, the
readers will have no difficulty in recognizing which Bengali word you are
using ; note also that the second b in /bx.b|s is silent and therefore,
the aa-kaar symbol | has no effect on this b and so writing the word
as /bx.b|s will not alter its pronounciation .
More EXAMPLES of CL : kinchit ( very little) = /kn'./ct.
ichchhaa (wish) = ic.C| ; but oichchhik (voluntary), which like most
compound letters can be broken down into two parts, oich + chhik , that
is: e'c. + /Ck and ,therefore, is written as e'c./Ck , because the
symbol / applies to C (chh) and NOT to c (ch) . 'shreeti' ( memory),on the
other hand, can be written as s.m</t without altering the pronounciation
of the word, since m is practically silent ..
udbaastu (refugee) = ud.b|s.t, (Don't forget to put the comma after the
t indicating the vowel symbol short-u). uddhaar (rescue) = ud.d'|r ;
oeendriya(of sense-organs) = e'n._/dy . The preceding word is
particularly an odd one, so be careful when writing it. adbhut (strange) =
ad.v,t ; aakkel (understanding) = a|k.(kl ; pushpo (flower) = p,S.p ; but
pushpito (blossomed) = p,S./pt ; brishti (rain) = b<S./T ;..
swaraashtro montree (minister of home affairs/home secretary) = s.br|S._T
mn._t\ ; kheen ( lean/thin) = k.K\N ; aagontuk ( a visitor) = a|gn.t,k
; sojjita (dressed) = sj./jt (don't forget to put a dot after the first
j ) ; kutumbo(kinsman ) = k,t,m.b ; sthaan (place) = s.t'|n ; songkhep
shorten ) = s% k.(Kp ; poreekkhaa (examination) = pr\k.K| ; samproti
(recently) = sm._p/t ; sompaadokiyo ( editorial) = sm.p|dk\y ; deeppunja
( group of islands ) = d.b\pp,n'.j ( b being silent, \ does not affect
the pronounciation of this word. ) ; kashtesreeshte
(with great difficulty) = kS.(Ts<S.(T ; (Don't forget to put a dot after each S,
indicating a 'hasanto' to the S's. ) ; vongur (brittle) = v&.g,r ;
kruddha (angry ) = _k,d.d' ; swaroop (nature) = s.br;p (remember, you need
a semicolon after the r to denote the long U ) ; swosti (peace/relief) = s.bs./t ;
don't forget the dot after each s. (remember: besides representing a
'hasanto'-symbol, a dot may also signify, in many cases, that the letters
sitting on either side of it is combining together to form a compound
letter ) ; aakreeshto (attracted) = a|k<S.T ; boishisto (speciality) =
[b/xS.T} ; shraantoklaanto (extremely tired) = _x|n.tk.l|n.t ; plabota
(buoyancy) = p.lbt| ; uchchhed (eradication) = uc.(Cd ; sthapoti
(architect) = s.t'p/t ; stree ( wife) = s._t\ ;
stotro ( verse of praise) = (s.t|_t ; stupeekreeto ( collected in a
heap) = s.t,p\k<t ; juktakkhor (compound letter) = j,k.t|k.Kr ;
sposhto (clear/evident) = s.pS.T ; aashchorjaannito (astonished)
= a|x.c^z|/n.bt (the preceding word is particularly a difficult one,
so be careful while writing it).
A tip worth knowing : To know how to write a Bengali word like
'sawchchhonde' (meaning 'easily' ) through this system, think, how this
word breaks down at the 'joint' of each of the compound letter and place
a dot (.), i.e., a 'hasanto' right after the FIRST or UPPER sub-letter ;
in this case it would be (s)wa(ch) + chha(n) + de and so the word is
written as s.bc.Cn.(d ; In the same way, the word 'sambondho'
(relationship) breaks down at the 'joint' of each sub-letter into:
sa(m) + bo(n) + (dh) and therefore should be written as sm.bn.d' ;
( You MUST always think in terms of actual Bengali spelling and
then translate that into our system of writing.).
If you have any particular Bengali word which you are not sure
about how to write it, as per this system, I would appreciate
A FEW USEFUL RULES :
REGARDING THE SAME TWO SUB-LETTERS
GENERAL RULE #1.
(a) If both the sub-letters composing a compound letter are the SAME and
are SOUNDED as ONE LETTER when pronouncing the relevant word , use only
ONE sub-letter in the spelling of the word . For instance, sarboda
(always) is written as s^bd| and NOT s^b.bd| ; write dharmo ( religion)
as d'^m and NOT d'^m.m . Matter of fact, most modern dictionaries suggest using
only one letter in all such cases. .
(b) On the other hand, where either of the SAME sub-letters retain its
pronounciation distinctly, both the sub-letters MUST be included
in your spelling, so as to maintain the right pronounciation :
EXAMPLE : rojju (rope) = rj.j, ; sachchoritro (good character ) =
sc.c/r_t ; unnoti (improvement) = un.n/t
REGARDING COMPOUND LETTER COMPOSED OF 'MERGING SUB-LETTERS'
GENERAL RULE #2 : If the sound of one sub-letter (composing a compound
letter) seems to MERGE or MIX into another sub-letter, when pronouncing
the relevant word, it is PREFERABLE NOT to use any symbol
in between the two sub-letters .
Hence it is preferable to write 'bishleson' (analysis) as /b(x.lSN
and NOT as /bx.(lSN , because the later form may lead the
reader more easily into misprouncing it or misunderstanding it
than the former one. For the same reason write 'klesh' (trouble) as
(k.lx and NOT as k.(lx .
Such problem does not arise where the pronounciation of each sub-letter
sounds DISTINCT and SEPARATE ,when the relevant word is uttered ;
that is, the sound of one does NOT merge into the sound of another.
Hence the word 'shaanti'(peace) is written as
x|n./t and NOT as x|/n.t , because the sound of n and t remain distinct
and separate from one another and therefore, in such cases, a symbol
CAN be inserted in between the two sub-letters,whenever needed, without the
likelihood of distorting the pronounciation of the word in question .
REGARDING COMPOUND LETTER COMPOSED OF 3 SUB-LETTERS
GENERAL RULE #3
CASE # 1 : OMIT the LOWEST or the THIRD SUB-LETTER ;
SIMPLIFY THE SPELLING WHEREVER POSSIBLE.
EXAMPLE : The Bengali word 'oordho' meaning 'the upward direction or
upper' has 3 sub-letters in the actual Bengali spelling, namely : d dh (d') and b
, where b is silent . Such being the case, you may write 'oordho' as U^d.d'
. However, I am in favour of using the modern spelling of 'oordho' in which
the relevant compound letter is spelled with dh (d') and b only. So,
according to this spelling, 'oordho' should be written as : U^d'.b .
'oordhe' meaning 'on high'/'above' is written as U ^(d'.b .
oordhothito (risen upwards) = U^(d'.b|t./t't (Don't forget to put the dot
after the first t , to indicate the 'hasanto' ).
Following the above rule of abbreviating a 3 sub-lettered compound letter
into two, the word 'sukkho', meaning 'fine', whose compound letter, in the
original Bengali spelling, is composed of k, kh(K) and m (where m is
silent), may, therefore, be written as : as s;k.K .
CASE # 2 : However, if you are a perfectionist, you may write a compound
letter consisting of 3 sub-letters in exactly the same way as it is
originally spelled in Bengali (sometimes, it's the older spelling) ; but, in this
case, you use a small dash (-) in between the lower two sub-letters.
EXAMPLES : So you write 'oordho'(upward) as U^d.d'-b and 'sookkho' (fine)
as s;k.K-m . In this case, 'oordhe' meaning 'above' is written as :
Here is a sample of Bengali e-mail, written in accordance with the present
system . ( A word of advice : While writing this way, always
provide a double space between the words so as to give a neat appearance to
_/py nb\n !
a(nk/dn p(r (t|m|r k|C (t'(k ekK|n| /c/T' (p(y K,b
K,x\ hl|m |
t,/m ekT|n| k,/D: bCr /b(d(x k|T|(n|r pr klk|t|y a|sC
m(n m(n a|nn.d(b|d' kr/C | t,/m e(d(xr m|/T(t p|
a|m|(k (f|n k(r j|n|(b (t|m|r s%(g k(b (dK| kr| sm.vb
a|m|r (zmn (t|m|(k a(nk/kC, /j(g.n's (to ask) kr(t ic.(C
(t|m|ro hyt (tmn a|m|(k /j(g.n's krb|r mt a(nk/kC, a|(C |
i/tm(d'} x,d,' (z (t|m|r o a|m|r (ch|r|ri p/rb^tn G(T(C
t|i ny -
klk|t|r r;pt|o r\/tmt p|l(T g}|(C | (t|m|r s%(g m,(K|m,/K
h(l b^tm|n o at\tk|(lr n|n| /bSy /n(y a|m|(dr m(d'}
kt'|b|^t| h(b |
t|h(l eKn a|/s |
(t|m|r bn.d,' - (j}|/t^my
I hope you will excuse me if I have committed any mistake in the course of
my presentation of these explanations. I hope you would point out to me
any mistake/s you might have come across; not any minor ones but anything
of significance , so that I may rectify them without delay.
Please let me know also what you think about this system of writing.
If you have any comment or criticism , do not hesitate to contact me .
My e-mail address is appearing below.
Dear Bengali friend!
Could you perhaps introduce all your Bengali friends and relatives to this
new system of writing. The more Bengalees know about it and use it in their
e-mail communications the better.
ei nt,n _pt'|y b|%l| (lK|r k|yd|T| (t|m|r (kmn l|gl
j|/no | ei pd.d'/t/Tr un.n/tkl.(p (t|m|r z/d (k|n up(dx
(doy|r t'|(k t(b (sT| j|n|(l /b(xS upk<t hb | ...
In conclusion let me state this clearly : I do NOT claim to be the
originator or inventor of this method. I acquaired the idea of writing
Bengali in the above way from someone many years ago ; I not only
expounded the idea I added also many little features and
details so as to make it more user-friendly, particularly with regards
to e-mail communications. I was originally motivated to initiate this system
so as to encourage more Bengalees to use their mother tongue which I
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